Where are all the jobs? A sector guide for students

by Anna Munhin Mar 25, 2023 News
Where are all the jobs? A sector guide for students

It may seem difficult to enter the world of work at the beginning. Thanks to technological changes, the requirements of the jobs market always seem to be changing, while application processes can feel inscrutable and building up your skills from a limited foundation looks like an uphill battle.

You are not the only one who is thinking this. In a tight labour market, companies are looking for enthusiastic, talented people who can get stuck into fascinating careers.

It can be difficult to figure out where to start. There are a lot of resources for young people to consider. The careers and enterprise company trains career coaches and provides guidance in schools and other places. The National Careers Service in the UK is an online hub where you can find courses and explore careers.

It is important to focus on your strengths and what makes you happy. Considering the demands of the job market helps when a range of growing sectors are suffering from shortages of workers.

One boom area is in green jobs because of the urgent need to address climate change. Working on the technology needed to cut carbon emissions is one of the things that can be done.

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Skills such as project management and communication will be necessary for those who are less scientific.

A report by the Learning and Work Institute found that 59 percent of UK employers were in need of candidates with green skills, and two-thirds said they couldn't hire them. Digital jobs are in high demand.

The chief executive of World Skills UK says that big industrial areas will need high skill sets in the future. Digital and green skills are in high demand among employers.

Stephen Evans is the director of the Learning and Work Institute. Roles in health and social care are likely to be in higher demand as the population gets older.

Evans says it's hard to predict the jobs of the future because of the changing nature of the work. Communication and ability to adapt are more important than ever. He says that everyone likes to predict the future but that we don't know. Flexibility is crucial. Bethan Staton is a journalist.


The GPT-4 logo
Understanding chatbots: as new AI technologies emerge, such as ChatGPT, engineers with skills in this area are increasingly in demand © Jaap Arriens/NurPhoto via Getty Images

After years of growth, the tech sector has been forced to scale back in the last few months, with big tech companies such as Meta making drastic job cuts.

There are still ways to get involved. The industry has one of the highest retention rates, and tech roles are among the highest paying with the most flexible arrangements.

In the US, ZipRecruiter found 13,500 entry-level positions for software engineers and 10,300 entry-level positions for data analysts, as technical roles remain in demand. Application development intern was the fastest-growing entry level tech position. The second and third fastest growing were development interns.

According to a report by Hired, the top growth areas for engineers in the US last year were natural language processing, cyber security and the internet of things.

Giuseppe Gasparro is a managing director at AlixPartners. Businesses move their data to the cloud and rely on software-as-a-service companies for customer success roles. Technical skills are required in these roles.

Many companies are racing to leverage artificial intelligence, which means that roles in research and development are increasingly popular.

According to Josh Brenner, chief executive of Hired, most employers prefer engineers who are well-versed in artificial intelligence and machine learning. The highest demand and year-over-year salary growth is seen by software engineers with these skills. He encourages people to learn coding.

Buber says that applicants should be prepared to do a skills assessment. They need to be prepared to learn new skills on the job.

Old-fashioned networking is suggested by others. Try to get out and talk to people. It can be anything from going to a conference to sending emails. Tech people are fond of talking to each other. Hannah Murphy is a technology correspondent.

Video games

Halo soldier
A serious business: building a successful gaming career takes more than a love of playing ‘Halo’ © Microsoft

Video games were in high demand during the Pandemic. It takes a lot more than a love of games to get a dream job.

Horia Dociu, a studio art director at Microsoft, says that making games is a serious business and that the work can be enjoyable.

According to an analysis by Bain & Company, global revenue for the game development industry will grow by more than 50 per cent. Increasing the efficiency of game developers is expected to be helped by artificial intelligence-powered software.

Joshua Balcaceres, studio art lead at games company Ubisoft's San Francisco office and former lead artist for Electronic Arts, says that artificial intelligence is not the first disruption he has experienced in his 20 years in the industry.

Back in the day, 3D was my artificial intelligence, and I had to become very technical to use it, and now it's one of the Batman's tools.

It may be harder for newcomers to break into the space because of potential mergers, such as Microsoft's push to acquire game maker. Staffing is dependent on company size, software limitations, budget and status of the project.

It's important to have a good portfolio when applying for jobs, says Ninel Anderson, the CEO of Devoted Studios.

Anderson advises game developers to identify the skills and style needed for a company and create a portfolio in that style.

The importance of team collaboration is warned by her. She recommends taking courses on project management and agility.

Students can get experience with industry standard software using online resources.

Formal education is no longer required for a career in game development, according to some industry professionals.

A lot of successful people from colleges and people who never set foot in a classroom are my friends.

Design, art and animation, production, publishing and engineering are some of the industries jobs. Morgan Ling says it's important for applicants to assess their skills to find the best fit for them.

What are the things in the gaming industry that really interest you? It is possible that is being part of game development. Maybe that's being on the research side and better understanding players and their behaviors to bring that to the game development team.

Charlotte Tarlitz says industry research and conversations with game developers will show the variety of jobs available.

She says that most college students want to do character design in games. It is worth looking into areas such as user interface and world building to create weapons or trees in a game.

The majority of the art will come from all the worlds you travel through. Avalon Pernell is a journalism student at the news school.


Insurance agent checking policy documents
Varied career path: a job in legal could range from working at a commercial firm, in-house at a company or joining a legal tech start-up © Getty Images/iStockphoto

The idea of a job in law may be appealing to fans of the show. The good news is that most lawyers don't live up to Harvey Specter's standards. The good news is that the profession offers a stimulating and potentially lucrative career path.

Lawyers work in firms where days are spent on everything from advising on a corporate deal to preparing to do battle in court. Some people work in the company's own legal team. Data, technology and project management skills are just as important as a law degree in starting a legal tech start-up.

Prospective lawyers are required to complete undergraduate degrees and postgraduate education in most countries. The graduate diploma in law is required for those without an undergraduate law degree. The Solicitors Qualifying Exam is one of the options being considered.

The route is not the same. Law school applicants in the US need an undergrad degree and must pass the LSAT to be accepted. To practice law in the US, you must have a Juris Doctor and pass the bar in the state you will practice in.

Law firms are now offering apprenticeships as well. Karen Davies, global chair of Ashurst, says this creates a new pathway for those who don't like the idea of university, or who are put off by the prospect of student debt.

She says that the quality of the people they have hired is great. The first apprentices will become partners at some of the UK's top law firms soon.

Candidates for law need to prove they have good communication and intellectual skills. A strong academic record is important for universities and law firms. Ashurst has introduced online tests of cognitive ability, problem solving and emotional intelligence to predict on-the- job performance.

Commercial awareness is important. Nathan Peart, a legal recruiters at Major, Lindsey & Africa, says that firms are looking for more than just the smartest people. All You Need to Know About The City is a book that gives an insight into what life would be like at a law firm.

One of the larger law firms will work on anything from mergers and acquisitions to property deals as a career option. Family law or criminal law are the only areas that other firms work on.

Skills in data and coding are in demand and there are many jobs for lawyers who want to work in legal teams or at legal technology firms. Traditional law firms are also hiring people for non-legal roles.

Davies says not to be afraid to get in touch. We can only succeed if we find the best and the smartest. Kate Beioley is a legal reporter.

Climate and sustainability

Steam and exhaust rise from the steel power station HKM Huettenwerke Krupp Mannesmann GmbH
Green ambitions: sustainability hires are on the rise as companies face pressure to cut emissions © Lukas Schulze/Getty Images

As regulatory changes force companies to spend more on these roles, a career path in sustainable living is proving to be a resilient choice for young people.

According to a report from Columbia University, there are more green job openings than people who say they have green skills. The number of chief sustainable officer roles has increased. Out of 1,640 public companies it surveyed, 28 per cent of them said their Chief Strategy Officer was now part of the C-suite.

In the case of corporate environmental, social and governance roles, students need to show they can connect the dots between different subject areas.

He says thatESG is about connections between business and society, between the needs of people and planetary boundaries, and between rich data and human experience.

Employers are looking for candidates with a wide range of skills who can help them meet the demands of a green future.

According to Catherine Zhu, head of the sustainable practice at Egon Zehnder, the skills needed now are more focused on helping organizations adapt.

She says students can practice skills they may have learned during the Pandemic.

The number of green jobs available in a range of sectors makes it easy to choose a career in sustainable living.

Demand for sustainable hires continues to rise, from consumer goods to industrial companies.

In 2021, PwC said it would increase its global workforce by more than a third over the next five years as part of a $12 billion investment to capture a booming market for environmental, social and governance (ESG) advice.

More of this information is now disclosed by most companies. A report last month from the Association of International Certified Professional Accountants stated that 95 percent of companies are reporting some ESG information.

The Securities and Exchange Commission is expected to mandating carbon emissions disclosures for the first time. The SEC developments are being eyed by the Big Four accounting firms.

Job descriptions are getting more precise as the sector matures. Some roles within asset management will focus on communicating with shareholders while others will be working on energy efficiency solutions.

She says that the most important preparation for anyone who wants to enter the space is to have curiosity, systematic thinking and change management skills. Patrick Temple- West is a governance reporter.

Public sector

Graduates leave the Great Hall after a degree ceremony at Birmingham University UK
Graduates: for careers such as teaching, nursing or medicine, you generally need university-level study followed by a higher-level course © Andrew Fox/Alamy

It is often said that working in the public sector is a safe and stable option. Roles delivering frontline government services can be some of the most exciting and rewarding jobs out there.

According to the Office for National Statistics, 3.6 million people work in roles related to central government in the UK. Roles in the civil service, nursing, social care, or teaching are possibilities.

If you have a science or technology background, teachers of physics, math or computing are in high demand. Roles in the National Health Service, or working on engineering or high-tech systems for local authorities might be appealing.

In areas of the civil service that involve research skills, building relationships, and relating national politics to people's everyday lives, arts, humanities, or economics degrees are very valuable.

If you want to become a teacher, nurse, or medicine professional, you need a university-level study followed by a higher-level course that will train you for the job.

A wide range of apprenticeships are available in the health service, civil service and other frontline government roles.

Over the past decade, buzzy initiatives have sought to make public sector careers more appealing.

More than 750 schools are served by Teach First. The teachers spend a minimum of two years in a school in a low income area. Many people go on to have long careers in teaching, while others use the experience to get into other sectors.

The UK has similar schemes in prisons, social work and policing. New programmes have helped to highlight the benefits of being in the public sector, according to the founder of Teach First.

People with talent don't just want a job for the money. He says they want to make change.

Government.org is a good place to find central government jobs in the US. For one or two years after graduating, the Partnership for Public Service can be a good place to start. Bethan Staton is a journalist.

Logistics and supply chains

Shipping containers are unloaded from the Maersk Edinburgh cargo ship at the APM shipping terminal in the Port of Los Angeles
Moving goods: supply chain disruption has put logistics companies in the spotlight © Patrick T Fallon/Bloomberg

Have you ever wondered what happens when you buy online?

The network of warehouses and delivery businesses that keep goods moving around the world were not thought of a few years back. Supply chain disruptions caused by the Pandemic have put these companies in the spotlight.

People with a range of skills are in demand. Amazon, Maersk and other companies are looking to hire people who can help them deliver goods fast as consumers order more online.

The international supply chain has become more complex due to global political disruptions. The Generation Logistics campaign seeks people with the skills to make the sector more eco-friendly and resilient. TikTok videos explain the range of opportunities.

The UK government's road and local transport minister said there was an issue during the Pandemic. Logistics can offer exciting careers.

Manual labourers, such as warehouse workers and delivery drivers, are often employed on low wages and unstable contracts, despite the fact that the sector has traditionally been male-dominated. Companies want to hire people with a variety of skills.

Grace Whittaker, a graduate of Asda's logistics business who studied business management, says there are stereotypes in the industry. My experience has given me a better idea of how many roles are out there.

Encouraging younger people is a priority for Liz Noble, who has worked for the delivery company in Poland and China. There are opportunities for graduates in IT, marketing and finance, as well as for apprentices in engineering, finance and HR.

The industry needs to appeal to people with skills in engineering, data analysis and project management, according to a deputy director. clusters of skills that reach across the supply chain will be required by new recruits. Supply chain reporter Oliver telling.

Arts and culture

Woman looking through film reel at office
Picture this: immersing yourself in the arts world will boost your chances of landing a creative job © Westend61/Vasily Pindyurin

People want to work in the arts and cultural sector. These jobs are often very varied and fulfilling.

They can be mundane, lacking in opportunities, and badly paid.

It is possible to join a grand institution, such as a museum, if you are well-informed about the realities.

Access to jobs is the first thing. Law, accountancy, public relations and digital skills are just some of the activities that make up the Creative industries. They are full of the kind of benign nepotism that makes outsiders angry. Information is a must when searching for an internship, a slice of work experience or a starter role. The internet is here to assist if you are not a nepo baby. Most positions are only made public through social media. Researching and following individuals and groups is time well spent.

Read everything, not only online, to decide which area to focus on. Go to everything you can. The experience will tell later on, and it will help focus on a path.

It is important to follow a dream, but it is more important to consider it from the point of view of the employer. If you are able to intern, take a good look at what they do and figure out what they need.

Digital sphere and technology will most likely be involved in areas of future growth. If you're interested in 16th-century Flemish altarpieces, make sure you know about non-fungible token and artificial intelligence.

It's difficult to judge the qualifications needed. College courses will not replace the experience of a working culture and a degree in English or history won't distinguish you from the pack. Get as many hands-on experiences as you can. It is not too late to start in a field where connections count for so much.

If you've been in this world for a while, you should pack your CV with relevant and interesting things. Don't forget the power of social media, even though tip-top digital skills will be needed. It's a good idea to keep your personal online presence to a minimum.

It will all be worth it if you can get through it. It's a great job. Jan Dalley works in the arts.

Banking and finance

card being tapped into a payment device
Fintech revolution: digital banks such as Starling have shaken up the financial services industry

The banking sector has changed a lot since the financial crisis. The rescue of Credit Suisse was one of the shocks that institutions had to adjust to.

There has been an increase in interest in the world of financial technology. Higher inflation has made investors hesitant to invest in start-ups. There have been job cuts in the sector.

Competition for jobs is high.

There are roles for people who are interested in problem solving, technology, and delivering good products to customers. The opportunities are as good as ever.

Tech recruiters say financial services is still growing. Many job seekers are moving from tech to the financial industry.

He says that people considering a career in financial services tend to study finance, economics or mathematics, but that more and more people are choosing to work in computer science and engineering.

The continued appeal of the technology is reflected in that. The sector has changed the way financial services are provided.

Even joining a traditional bank will have to contend with technology, ranging from cloud computing to machine learning.

Any career in the financial sector requires interest in either digital material or technology according to the senior bankers.

Investment banking, wealth management and insurance are some of the areas of growth. He says that applicants should highlight their projects and hobbies in their CVs and cover letters.

He says that networking is important. Taking the recruiters call will give you an indication of the market and options.

Compliance and tackling financial crime is a core focus for all companies in the sector, ranging from the big banks to the new start-ups.

Jessica Hamilton, a financial crime career consultant, says that you should show interest or an ability. She says students should consider studying programming languages that are also spoken in other parts of the world.

She suggests applying for an internship which can lead to a career fighting financial crime. She says that criminology or sociology courses are helpful for learning. Politics can be useful due to the socio- economic nature of financial crime. Siddharth Venkatarama Krishnan is a banking and Fintech correspondent.

Health and pharmaceuticals

A healthcare worker prepares a dose of the Sinovac Biotech Ltd. Covid-19 vaccine
Vaccine breakthroughs: the Covid pandemic put pharmaceutical companies to the test © Dimas Ardian/Bloomberg

The power of the pharmaceutical industry to change lives was shown by the Covid-19 Pandemic.

The vaccines were a part of the industry. Drugmakers are excited about creating new medicines that can help patients with few options, such as cancer or rare diseases that can affect babies from birth. We are at the beginning of a scientific revolution that will make drugs more tailored to each patient.

Demand for medicines is likely to increase because of the aging population.

The outlook for the life sciences sector in the UK is positive according to Chris Smith, a director at recruiters Hays. 97 percent of employers said they had a shortage of employees with the skills they needed.

He says there is a lot of growth in small and medium-sized businesses. Research lab positions are in high demand.

The Golden Triangle of London, Oxford and Cambridge is where most of the jobs are located in the UK.

Many large pharma companies are based in New Jersey and are located in the US. There are opportunities for manufacturing in Switzerland and Germany.

There are many life sciences professionals. Smith says it's common for teams who work with regulators to be global, so there are opportunities to transfer.

A bachelor's degree in science and a further degree or PhD are required for prospective employees. With technologies like artificial intelligence being used to replace some experiments, companies are especially interested in hiring people with bioinformatics skills.

If you don't study science, there are still some routes. This could be a technician in a lab who knows how to support the scientists.

Smith wants to do something for the good of humankind and has an interest in science.

The industry has been accused of putting high prices on drugs in order to make them more expensive for poorer people in countries without universal healthcare. The industry distributed Covid vaccines to the richest countries first, according to campaigners.

If you are interested in science and want to solve some of the world's biggest problems, a career in the pharmaceutical industry is for you.

It's possible to learn more about the industry and improve your skills. Internships are offered by many companies and multinational organizations. Information can be found on the internet from a number of organizations.

Bursaries can be found through the British Science Foundation CREST awards and the Association for the British Pharmaceutical Industry. A summer programme for year 12 students is run by In2science.

Drugmakers and research organizations such as Cancer Research and King's College London offer graduate training schemes. Hannah Kuchler is a global pharma correspondent.